Plants belong to the kingdom Plantae and are mostly multicellular, photosynthetic eukaryotes. The flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns and their associates, hornworts, liverworts, mosses, and the green algae all belong to the clade Viridiplantae (Latin for “green plants”), which excludes the red and brown algae. In the past, all algae and fungi were considered part of the kingdom of plants, one of the two kingdoms that included all living creatures other than animals. However, all current classifications of Plantae exclude prokaryotes, certain algae, and fungi (the archaea and bacteria). Green plants need primary chloroplasts, produced due to an endosymbiotic relationship with cyanobacteria, to photosynthesise most of the energy they receive from the sun. They are green because their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b. Some plants lose their capacity to produce normal chlorophyll levels or photosynthesize because they are parasitic or mycotrophic. Although asexual reproduction is also frequent, sexual reproduction and generational alternation are what define plants.
Houseplants are plants that are grown indoors in containers for decorative purposes, to improve air quality, or for their health benefits. These plants are typically smaller in size and adapted to low light conditions, and they can be placed on windowsills, tables, or hanging baskets. Houseplants come in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, colors, and textures, and they can be chosen based on personal preference or their specific benefits, such as air-purifying properties, stress reduction, or aromatherapy. Common types of houseplants include succulents, ferns, ivies, snake plants, and peace lilies, among others.